Blood separation is one of the crucial processes in a clinical lab and is usually conducted via a process called centrifugation.
Blood cell separation
Blood consists of two types of cells: Red Blood Cells (RBC), called also erythrocytes and White Blood Cells (WBC), called leucocytes. Erythrocytes are the blood cells that distribute oxygen from the lungs to all the other parts throughout the whole organism, whereas the leucocytes are responsible for attacking any infectious cells, sustaining the optimal performance of the whole immune system.
White Blood Cells can be furthermore categorized into: lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils (granulocytes).
Blood plasma separation
Blood cells are suspended in a yellowish substance called plasma, consisting of proteins, glucose, clotting factors, hormones, and carbon dioxide.
The purpose of blood cell separation
The common purpose of blood separation is testing the various blood components acc. to medical prescriptions. Each blood component has its unique role and function, thus separating it is the crucial process of the examination.
Blood separation techniques
For medical testing purposes, blood is normally collected in tubes, which size and capacity varies from 1.2mL and 15mL.
For blood cell separation, blood plasma separation as well as multiple other applications, such as PRP, PPP, Stem-Cell, etc., Capp has developed two centrifuge models:
|CappRondo Basic Clinical Centrifuge CRC-658||CappRondo Advanced Clinical Centrifuge CRC-416X|
CappRondo Basic Clinical Centrifuge has a fixed angle rotor accommodating 8 tubes, with capacity of: 1.5mL, 2mL, 5mL, 7mL, 10mL or 15mL. This basic centrifuge operates with a variable speed up to 6500 RPM corresponding to 3.873g. The CappRondo Advanced Clinical Centrifuge has 3 optional rotors: two fixed-angle rotors of 8x15mL or 16x10mL, as well as a swing-out rotor for 6x10mL tubes. It operates at a variable speed up to 4.000 RPM, corresponding to 2.270g when a swing-out rotor is used.
Blood cell separation techniques
A swing-out and a fixed-angle rotor affect blood cell separation differently and have their own advantages. A swing-out rotor will allow particles to deposit evenly on the bottom of the tube, whereas a fixed-angle rotor will strike the particles to the opposite side of the tube, where they slide down to the bottom. This results in faster blood cell separation.
Blood separation with a swing-out rotor
On a swing-out rotor, the blood cell separation occurs at smaller centrifugal forces. This type of rotor is usually applicable in medical and research laboratories.
Blood separation takes place in the middle of the tube bottom enabling easy separation of the phases.
Blood separation with a fixed-angle rotor
On a fixed-angle rotor, the blood separation occurs with high centrifugal forces. This type of rotor is usually used in research laboratories. Blood separation can be done quicker on a fixed-angle rotor compared to a swing-out rotor.